Human exposure to MNs used in consumer products may occur during several phases of the life cycle of those consumer products, i. e. the synthesis of the MNs, the production, inclusion and cialis cost use in consumer products and cialis buy now the release of MNs to the environment (through industrial emissions or disposal of consumer products). Therefore, all exposure routes will be tested on MNs selected from industry, both in vitro and order usa viagra online in vivo. The expected outcomes deal mainly with information that is not currently available.

puce-ronde The major outcomes are:

1) Collecting, analyzing and getting cialis from canada disseminating health information and united healthcare viagra knowledge about the human and no prescription viagra environmental safety of nanomaterials (scopes 1 and 2) by generating relevant and viagra discount reliable data sets by:

(i) Distinguishing specific hazards regarding the physical and cialis for sale chemical parameters of MNs.

(ii) Providing toxicological parameters for risk assessment and best viagra better understanding the behaviour of MNs by comparing them to conventional materials (scopes 1, 2 and 3).

(iii) Establishing a correlation between in vivo and cialis canada in vitro genotoxicological data as well as completing the information on MN bioaccumulation by identifying target organs (scope 2).

2) Promoting a robust reliable methodology at the European level in order to be used for testing potential genotoxicity of MNs by exchanging best practices through a round robin test involving 11 European States including New Member States (scopes 1, 2 and 3). This methodology will have t he interesting advantage of quickly defining an available economical procedure for MNs genotoxicity alert signals. In addition, these alert signals could be applied to MNs, already widely used on the market, namely TiO2 and SiO2, but also to MNs, which according to the current literature, have some toxicological effects in experimental animals, namely CNT. This action will help reinforce the European Union's leadership on MN safety and viagra india contribute to international work already ongoing ( OECD and ISO). An additional benefit may be a possible application to the non-intentionally produced nanomaterials (e.g., nanoparticles form smoke and buy cialis uk diesel), thus providing a better understanding of their behaviour (scope 2).

Thus, the outcomes of the JA target crucial items of the programme by facilitating overall safety evaluation for MNs (scopes 2 and 3), sharing knowledge on identified MNs (scope 1) and filling the gaps in risk assessment through genotoxicity ring testing (scopes 1, 2 and 3). The outcomes also bring significant added value at the European level through the participation of key actors in the consortium.

Furthermore, national reference laboratories will be highlighted through the consistent use of standard operating procedures and cross evaluation and/or staff training in the laboratories involved.

Concerning the long term contribution or sustainability of the JA, this will be ensured in a number of ways. At a minimum, a network of reference laboratories will have been created. Those laboratories could continue, even after the JA, to work either on their own or within the network, on the basis of the developed SOPs to continue the work. In addition, a database will have been developed within the JA, with data that are valid and exploitable and can serve as a reference. These data will be available for different materials, selected for their different potential levels of toxicity (based on current knowledge), materials which are widely produced and used, available on the market, and for which exposures occur through different routes. In addition to the creation of a database, the JA will develop a robust, rapid, reliable method, alternative to animal testing, capable of giving alert signals to different target groups:

Manufacturers who may decide to stop developing materials on the basis of the obtained results, or control authorities, or citizens. The developed method can be transferred to other stakeholders outside the JA. Also, for the organizations participating in the JA, the project will offer a possibility to share technical competences as well as procedures and buying cialis soft tabs 100 mg SOPs.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 22 September 2010 10:21